Realization of Theme on Malaysia Tourism e-Brochure

  • Eka Sari Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Rodey Hamzah Politeknik Kota Bharu
  • Dian Asa Utari Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya
  • Miftachudin Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya
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Keywords: Promotion media; systemic functional linguistics; tourism; theme

Abstract

E-brochure as one kind of promotion media reaches vast audience in short time to promote Malaysian tourism spots. Analyzing the occurrence of theme on e-brochure is expected to help Malaysian tourism providers create interesting and efficient promotion media. Theme works as the glue that structures meanings in a clause. This research aims to analyze themes on Malaysia tourism e-brochure in forms of topical, textual, and interpersonal themes. The analysis is done using thematic development proposed by Gerot and Wignell (1994). This research is descriptive qualitative research. The objects are e-brochures of seven tourism spots in Malaysia. They are Langkawi, Penang, Pangkor, Port Dickson, Islands of Johor, Tioman, and Malaysia in general. They are chosen randomly to make the analysis objective. There are 183 clauses that work as the data. The analysis shows that most of the themes on Malaysia e-brochure are in forms of topical theme. The emergence of topical theme in the analysis are mostly in forms of noun and noun phrase. Analyzing types of themes is helpful to make the focus of the meaning on Malaysia e-brochure delivered well as it plays a crucial role in contributing the coherence on it.

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Realization of Theme on Malaysia Tourism e-Brochure


Eka Dyah Puspita Sari1, Rodey Hamza Bin Hamzah2, Dian Asa Utari3, Miftachudin4
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia1, Politeknik Kota Bharu, Malaysia2, Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia3,4
Email: eka.dyah@unsoed.ac.id ; rodeyhamza@pkb.edu.my ; dian.asa.utari@ppns.ac.id ; miftachudin@ppns.ac.id

Abstract
E-brochure as one kind of promotion media reaches vast audience in short time to promote Malaysian tourism spots. Analyzing the occurrence of theme on e-brochure is expected to help Malaysian tourism providers create interesting and efficient promotion media. Theme works as the glue that structures meanings in a clause. This research aims to analyze themes on Malaysia tourism e-brochure in forms of topical, textual, and interpersonal themes. The analysis is done using thematic development proposed by Gerot and Wignell (1994). This research is descriptive qualitative research. The objects are e-brochures of seven tourism spots in Malaysia. They are Langkawi, Penang, Pangkor, Port Dickson, Islands of Johor, Tioman, and Malaysia in general. They are chosen randomly to make the analysis objective. There are 183 clauses that work as the data. The analysis shows that most of the themes on Malaysia e-brochure are in forms of topical theme. The emergence of topical theme in the analysis are mostly in forms of noun and noun phrase. Analyzing types of themes is helpful to make the focus of the meaning on Malaysia e-brochure delivered well as it plays a crucial role in contributing the coherence on it.

Keywords: Promotion media; systemic functional linguistics; tourism; theme

Copyright and License : Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



1. Introduction
Malaysia offers various tourism spots. It covers islands and beaches tourism and adventures with nature tourism. It also includes artificial tourism spots. The broad range of Malaysia’s tourism area makes Malaysia a perfect place to go on holiday. It also matches with Malaysia’s official tourism tagline, i.e., “Malaysia Truly Asia”. Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (2023) elaborates the tagline as “The country’s evolution into a cultural melting pot is evident in its unique blend of religions, traditions, festivals, languages, food, and many more” (Malaysia Truly Asia - The Official Tourism Website of Malaysia, n.d.). It can be seen that Malaysia has diverse and various things, starting from its traditions, festivals, and even languages. Tourism is regarded as one factor that supports the diversity and Malaysia economy. It makes the economy factor run well. To reach more potential tourists and people to come and visit Malaysia, Malaysia creates Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board that works as an online marketing media. On its website, it covers deals and packages, enquiries, address, corporate website, gallery, disclaimer, terms of use, and e-brochures. The use of e-brochures is expected to help people who want to visit Malaysia have a clear view on what activities they are going to choose and spend in Malaysia. E-brochures are used optimally during the pandemic condition, in which people cannot come directly to the tourism places. On Malaysia e-brochure, there are some features displayed on it, such as maps, photos, and captions. Captions on e-brochures are used to describe the photos and maps clearly. The caption and the structure of e-brochures can be analyzed to ensure that the message in e-brochures is clearly delivered for what it is going to say. Analyzing the occurrence of theme on Malaysia e-brochure is expected to help tourism providers in Malaysia create interesting and efficient promotion media.
There are some previous scholars focused on the research of e-brochure. First scholar is Furnama and Rosa (2020). They put their focus on verbal and visual elements on Mandeh Island tourism brochure. Their result is “the brochure has all generic structure which is lead, display, emblem (verbal), announcement, enhancer, emblem (visual), tag, and call-and-visit information” (Furnama & Rosa, 2020). The second research is conducted by Soegotto and Istiqomah (2019). In their research, they highlight the use of e-brochure in entrepreneurship. The result of their research shows an effect as “the use of brochure in communicating is very effective for strategic persuasive” (Soegotto & Istiqomah, 2019). Another research came from Luo and Huang (2015). They use eight move-structural models proposed by Bhatia in American tourism brochure as their theoretical framework. Their research displays that American tourism brochures utilize eight move-structural models as “American tourism brochures apply an eight-move generic model in order: Move 1 (attracting tourists’ attention); Move 2 (targeting the market); Move 3 (establishing credentials); Move 4 (highlighting specialties); Move 5 (detailing the tourist destination); Move 6 (offering incentives); Move 7 (providing service in-formation); and Move 8 (soliciting responses). Data of the occurrence frequency of each move and strategy demonstrate that Move 1, 5, 7, 8 are functioning as essential practices in brochure writing process while Move 2, 3, 4, 6 are alternative actions with contributions to the effectiveness of promoting destination image” (Luo & Huang, 2015).
All those previous researches focus on the structures analysis of e-brochure, such as multimodal analysis and genre analysis. None of them puts their focus on the types of theme used on e-brochure. Regarding the gap, this research puts its focus on analyzing the types of themes used on Malaysian e-brochure. This research states the objective as to identify the types of themes on Malaysia e-brochure. The occurrence of the type of theme is analyzed and elaborated into the finding and discussion.

2. Methods
This research put its focus on several tourism spots in Malaysia promoted by e-brochure on Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board. There were seven tourism spots used as the object. They were Malaysia; Langkawi, Kedah; Penang; Pangkor, Perak; Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan; Islands of Johor; and Tioman, Pahang (Tourism Malaysia, 2022). All tourism spots used English as their language of promotion on the e-brochure. The seven tourism spots were chosen randomly. Simple random sampling method was implemented because it “was easy to implement and required little knowledge of the population in advance” (Simple Random Sampling and Systematic Sampling, n.d.). In collecting the data, the seven tourism places were collected on the website https://ebrochures.malaysia.travel/ , then they were separated into clauses. After getting the data, it was then analyzed using Gerot and Wignell’s three types of themes. The three types of themes proposed by Gerot and Wignell were ideational theme, interpersonal theme, and textual theme. Ideational theme or topical theme usually came in the beginning of a clause. It could be in forms of nominal group complex, adverbial group, prepositional phrases, or embedded clause. There were two different types of topical theme, i.e., unmarked dan marked topical themes. Unmarked topical theme was placed as the subject, while marked topical theme was not always in subject place. Textual theme dealt with context. It could be in form of continuative and/or conjunctive adjunct and conjunction. Interpersonal theme could be in forms of modal adjunct, vocative, finite, or Wh-element (Gerot & Wignell, 1994). Halliday, in Forey (2002), added description of the three types of themes. Ideational theme functioned to build an experience model, interpersonal theme worked to make use of social relationships, and textual theme built a connection with context (Forey, 2002). Classifying types of themes and the forms of occurrence were the last step in analyzing the data. Finally, the result of the analysis was concluded.

3. Findings and Discussion
The result of the analysis was presented in the types of themes of seven Malaysian tourism spots on e-brochure. There were 183 clauses in total. The analysis was done in division of each type of themes. There were three types of themes in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL). They were ideational, interpersonal, and textual themes (Gerot & Wignell, 1994) . Seven Malaysian tourism e-brochures contained 183 clauses. They were then analyzed and categorized into three types of themes.

Textual Theme
Textual theme is one type of themes in Systemic Functional Linguistics. Gerot and Wignell elaborate textual theme as “relate the clause to its context” (Gerot & Wignell, 1994). Halliday, in Forey, added some information on textual theme. He added that textual theme dealt with “creating relevance to context” (Forey, 2002). It could be said that textual theme worked to build cohesion in clauses. There were 21 themes (11,48%) regarded as textual theme. The existence of textual theme showed up in various forms, such as conjunction and Wh-word.

a) Conjunction
Conjunction functioned to combine two clauses or more. In Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), conjunction worked more than that. It could be used to make clauses in cohesion and to maintain the relevance of clauses with the context. The occurrence of conjunction as textual theme showed up in the table below.






Table 1. Occurrence of Conjunction as Textual Theme
Clause Textual Theme Rheme
5 Beneath the aquamarine waters are a fascinating world of corals and marine life waiting to be discovered.
22 while visitors to Tengah Beach can hire a boat and go island hopping.
30 For those shy of the sea, hop into a glass-bottomed boat and watch the underwater world unfurl below.
79 However, others believe it may have been a memorial to Pang Kui, a legendary Chinese adventurer said to have lent his skills in seamanship to the bands of pirates this island once sheltered.
138 For some adventure, hike through the jungle trails leading to unspoilt mangrove swamps.

Most of textual theme on Malaysia e-brochure came as conjunction. It might happen because there was many information in a clause that were going to be delivered to the audience, so the use of conjunction could help the clause delivered clearly.

b) Additive
Additive meant adding more information to the clause. One phrase that was commonly used to show addition was the word “and”. In Malaysia e-brochure, there was one clause that uses additive in the theme.

Table 2. Occurrence of Additive as Textual Theme
Clause Textual Theme Rheme
32 and cataramans takes one hour.

Additive was not widely used on Malaysia e-brochure because the additional information was delivered by using conjunction, instead of additive.

c) Conditional
Conditional was used to show something in specific condition. The most commonly used to show conditional was the word “if”, but there was another word that could be used to show conditional, such as “as” and “as if”. Only one clause on Malaysia e-brochure that used conditional as textual theme.

Table 3. Occurrence of Conditional as Textual Theme
Clause Textual Theme Rheme
52 As the sun sets, Batu Feringghi comes alive with a carnival-like atmosphere with an open-air bazaar selling anything from ornate curios to enticing mementos.

Conditional was not preferably used on Malaysia e-brochure because the purpose of e-brochure was to display the real condition, while conditional was commonly used to show something in specific condition. The lack use of conditional on the e-brochure could convince the potential tourist about the activities on the tourism areas.

d) Causal
Causal related to action as a cause. In Malaysia e-brochure, there was only one clause that implemented causal in the textual theme.

Table 4. Occurrence of Causal as Textual Theme
Clause Textual Theme Rheme
71 To experience the charms of Penang take a city tour for a glimpse of its nostalgic past.

The single occurrence of causal textual theme might happen because the purpose in making e-brochure was for describing the tourism areas, not for causing another event to come up.

Ideational/Topical Theme
Ideational/topical theme is another type of theme that relates to the idea of a clause. Halliday, in Forey, defines ideational/topical theme as “construing a model of experience” (Forey, 2002). Gerot and Wignell divided ideational/topical theme into two types, i.e., unmarked and marked topical themes. The two topical themes were elaborated as “In the unmarked case, the topical theme is also the subject. A topical theme which is not the subject is called a marked topical theme. The term marked is used because it stands out. It attracts attention because it is not what we normally expect to find.” (Gerot & Wignell, 1994). It could be seen that ideational/topical theme brought idea of a clause. It could be in form of subject which was called as unmarked topical theme, and non-subject place called as marked topical theme. Most of clauses in Malaysia e-brochure used topical theme in their clauses. There were 161 themes (87,98%) worked as topical theme. The occurrence of topical theme showed up in two types and in various forms, such as noun, prepositional phrase, personal pronoun, referential, etc.

Unmarked Topical Theme
There were seven linguistic forms used to represent unmarked topical theme in Malaysia e-brochure. They were demonstrative pronoun, dependent clause, existential, noun, noun phrase, personal pronoun, and referential.

a) Demonstrative Pronoun
Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun referred to a noun and its position. The occurrence of demonstrative pronoun as unmarked topical theme showed up in the table below.



Table 5. Occurrence of Demonstrative Pronoun as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
25 There are plenty of water sports available on this popular beach providing fun and excitement for all.
35 There is a host of themed attractions in Langkawi providing excitement for young and old travelers alike.
145 These islands boast beautiful beaches with shady cool trees and clear waters.
167 Those without a strong affinity to water can still enjoy these sights in a glass-bottomed boat.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used demonstrative pronoun as their theme because demonstrative pronoun functioned to point to specific object on the e-brochure.

b) Existential
Existential refers to the existence. Existential in unmarked topical theme aimed to tell the existence of something. In Malaysia e-brochure, there was only one existential existed in unmarked topical theme.

Table 6. Occurrence of Existential as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
170 There are several villages scattered around the island’s coastline, the larger ones being Salang, Tekek, Genting, Paya and Juara.

Single occurrence of existential as the theme on Malaysia e-brochure might happen because most of clauses on the e-brochure placed the subject first and in specific subject.

c) Noun
Noun refers to any class of person, place, or thing. Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used noun as unmarked topical theme.

Table 7. Occurrence of Noun as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
8 Langkawi is the largest of a multitude of islands that lie off the coast of Kedah state, in the far northwest of Peninsular Malaysia.
27 Restaurants serve a variety of local and international fare with live music and energetic ambience.
45 Penang is one of Malaysia’s most famous resort destinations.
99 Lumut is a 4-hour drive from Kuala Lumpur via the North-South Highway.
166 Marine life such as Napoleon fish, golden striped trevally, bumphead parrotfish and shoals of fusiliers swim playfully in the depths.

Some clauses (31,15%) used noun as their theme. It might happen because they named the object, place, or person specifically, for example Penang, Lumut, and restaurants. It was chosen to make readers easy to clearly notice and identify the object, place, or person.

d) Noun Phrase
Noun phrase consisted of determiner and noun. In Malaysia e-brochure, there were some noun phrases emerged as the theme.

Table 8. Occurrence of Noun Phrase as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
9 The island comprises a archipelago of 99 islands
39 Some handicraft centers have batik workshops for visitors to try their hand at batik-painting.
90 The privately-owned island resort boasts one of the finest beaches in the Straits of Malacca.
124 The magical islands of Johor are endowed with crystal clear waters, powdery white sand and colorful marine life.
176 This village is the gateway to Tioman by air and sea.

Some clauses used noun phrase as their theme. The reason for choosing noun phrase as the theme was similar to choose noun, i.e., to name specific object, place, or person, but noun phrase introduced a noun or pronoun as its head.

e) Personal Pronoun
Personal pronoun relates to pronoun. There are some definitions on personal pronoun. One of them defines personal pronouns as “pronouns that refer to a specific person or thing in a sentence and can be divided into two groups: nominative and objective” (Tutoring and Writing Services, n.d.). The occurrence of personal pronoun as theme in Malaysia e-brochure emerged in some clauses.

Table 9. Occurrence of Personal Pronoun as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
100 It can be reached by taxi or bus from Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur or Butterworth.
135 They are accessible from the Tanjung Leman jetty, 60km from Mersing.
177 It is also the closest village to the Berjaya Tioman Beach, Golf & Spa Resort, the island’s only five-star accommodation.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used personal pronoun as their theme because personal pronoun functioned to replace the noun in the clause. Using personal pronoun could serve as a good way to help e-brochure producer avoid noun repetition.

f) Referential
Referential meant referring to the specific phrase. The use of referential on Malaysia e-brochure was shown in some themes. They referred to the previous clause.

Table 10. Occurrence of Referential as Unmarked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
56 The numerous luxury resorts here offer a relaxing seaside getaway.
68 Both of these beaches are only accessible by boat or by hiking trails from Teluk Bahang.
102 Its proximity to the nation’s capital and ample accommodation facilities make it a preferred destination for a host of events and recreation.
122 The museum here offers glimpses of the town’s history.
164 Its warm waters and good visibility make it a paradise for underwater explorations.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used referential because it could help conveying objective and precise details of the context in a clause. The use of referential, such as “its”, “these”, and “here” helped readers refer the theme with the correct details.

Marked Topical Theme
There were three linguistic forms used to represent marked topical theme in Malaysia e-brochure. They were adverbial phrase, prepositional phrase, and complement.


a) Adverbial Phrase
Adverbial phrase consisted of adverb and qualifier. The occurrence of adverbial phrase as theme in Malaysia e-brochure emerged in some clauses.

Table 11. Occurrence of Adverbial Phrase as Marked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
119 Built in the 16th century, this lighthouse was used to guide vessels sailing to Melaka, then a thriving port-of-call in the region.
161 Until today, the island bears a startling resemblance to a sleeping dragon.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used adverbial phrase to add or modify the theme, such as giving detailed date or time. It might happen to highlight the important date, time, or place to the readers.

b) Prepositional Phrase
Prepositional phrase consisted of preposition and the object it affected. The occurrence of prepositional phrase as theme in Malaysia e-brochure emerged in some clauses.

Table 11. Occurrence of Prepositional Phrase as Marked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
19 On the western coastline of Langkawi lie the beaches of Datai, Kok, Burau Bay and Tengah.
62 Further west from Teluk Bahang are several beaches which lie off the beaten track.
118 Close to Blue Lagoon is Cape Rachado or Tanjung Tuan Lighthouse.
121 To the northeast of Port Dickson is the Lukut Fort, erected to protect the tin-rich town of Lukut.
155 Nearby beaches of Penyabong, Air Papan, Teluk Buih and Tenglu are also worth visiting.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used prepositional phrase to add or modify the theme by giving detailed preposition of the subject. The use of specific location was seen in many themes on Malaysia e-brochure.

c) Complement
Function of complement was to complete a predicate in a clause. The occurrence of complement as theme in Malaysia e-brochure emerged in some clauses.

Table 11. Occurrence of Complement as Marked Topical Theme
Clause Topical Theme Rheme
51 Dubbed the Feringghi Walk, the bazaar offers shoppers a host of souvenir items.
140 Famed for its tall palm trees, white sand and secluded coves, this is the ideal tropical getaway.
156 Hailed as one of the best island getaways in the world, Tioman is famed as the setting for “Bali Hai’ in the Hollywood musical, South Pacific.

Some clauses on Malaysia e-brochure used complement. Complement was chosen as it completed the meaning of the clause.

Interpersonal Theme
Last type of theme was interpersonal theme. Function of interpersonal theme was to make use of social relationships (Halliday, in (Forey, 2002)). Gerot and Wignell added that interpersonal theme can be in forms of “modal adjunct, vocative, finite, or Wh-elements” (Gerot & Wignell, 1994). There was only one clause in Malaysia e-brochure used interpersonal theme. It was in form of polarity.

Table 11. Occurrence of Polarity as Interpersonal Theme
Clause Interpersonal Theme Rheme
76 Not to be missed when visiting this island are the spectacular street art and wrought-iron markers scattered around the heritage city of George Town, particularly along Armenian Street.

Polarity emerged as interpersonal theme on Malaysia e-brochure. It emerged as a way to measure of how negative or positive emotion in the clause. A single occurrence of polarity showed that Malaysia e-brochure preferred to use positive clauses in elaborating its business

4. Conclusion
Malaysia e-brochure applies three types of themes proposed by Gerot and Wignell. They are textual, topical, and interpersonal themes. Textual theme shows up in forms of conjunction, additive, conditional, and causal. Topical theme emerges in demonstrative pronoun, existential, noun, noun phrase, personal pronoun, referential, adverbial phrase, prepositional phrase, and complement. Interpersonal theme can be seen in forms of polarity. Most clauses on Malaysia e-brochure use topical theme as its preference. Knowing theme used on Malaysia e-brochure gives readers a clear view on what the text is going to be about.

5. REFERENCES
Forey, G. (2002). Aspects Of Theme and their Role in Workplace Texts [University of Glasgow]. http://www.isfla.org/Systemics/Print/Theses/ForeyThesis/
Furnama, S., & Rosa, R. N. (2020). E-Journal of English Language & Literature A MULTIMODAL ANALYSIS OF TOURISM BROCHURES FOR ADVERTISING TOURIST ATTRACTION IN MANDEH ISLAND, WEST SUMATRA. English Language and Literature, 9(4), 446–457. http://ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/jell
Gerot, linda, & Wignell, peter. (1994). MAKING SENSE OF FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR.
Luo, J., & Huang, T. (2015). Genre-Based Analysis of American Tourism Brochure. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 03(09), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2015.39028
Malaysia Truly Asia - The Official Tourism Website of Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2023, from https://www.malaysia.travel/about-malaysia
Simple Random Sampling and Systematic Sampling. (n.d.).
Soegotto, D. S., & Istiqomah, A. O. (2019). E-brochure as a Communication Strategy in Entrepreneurship. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 662(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/662/3/032038
Tourism Malaysia. (2022, January 13). Https://Ebrochures.Malaysia.Travel/.
Tutoring and Writing Services. (n.d.). WHAT IS A PRONOUN?
Published
2023-09-12
How to Cite
Sari, E., Hamzah, R., Dian Asa Utari, & Miftachudin. (2023). Realization of Theme on Malaysia Tourism e-Brochure. LINGUA : Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Dan Pengajarannya, 20(2), 225-236. https://doi.org/10.30957/lingua.v20i2.813
Section
Articles